NOUN This is a variable class of word, which nominates objects, people, feelings, places and so on. There are many topics to divide nouns. When we refer to personal nouns, it comes in capital letter. The most common ones are: Concrete: it nominates to object, places, people and animals. Exemplos:

Cadeira Chair
Ceará Ceará (Brazilian state)
Carolina Carolina
Cachorro Dog

Abstract:

it nominates to actions, states, feelings and qualities. It depends on other beings to exist. It is not possible to see them.

Exemplos:

Alegria Joy
Sofrimento Suffering
Tristeza Sadness
Estudiosa Hard-working

Collective:

it gives the idea of plural, although it is written in the singular. It nominates a group of the same species.

Exemplos:

Lobo
Wolf
Alcatéia
Group of wolves
Elefante
Elephant
Manada
Group of elephant
Fotografia
Picture
Album
Group of pictures
Uva
Grape
Cacho
Bunch of grapes
Pássaro
Bird
Revoada
Group of birds
Palavras
Word
Vocabulário
Group of words

In Portuguese, nouns have gender, degree and quantity. There's no difference such as countable and uncountable nouns. All of them are countable.

The way we characterize them are:

Gender:
female and male. There are two kinds of gender.

  • Biformes: there are two forms, a masculine and a feminine one. For example: gato / gata (cat)
  • Uniformes: there is only one form for both genders. For example: o pianista / a pianista.

Attention to the termination of the noun. Usually, male words end in o and female words end in a. The exception is when you have an uniform word, it can end in both letters and take both genders.

Degree:

there are three degrees, normal, aumentativo “ when you say something is bigger - and diminutive “ when you say something is smaller.

Example:

casa
House
casarA?o
big house
casinha
small house
Orelha
Ear
orelhA?o
big ear
orelhinha
small ear
Copo
Glass
copázio
big glass
copanzil
small glass

In this cases, as you see, there are many terminations for the aumentativo and for the diminutive.

In all cases, there are two variations:

Analítica - when you add an adjective.

Casa pequena, casa grande*
Livro pequeno, livro grande*
*Grande is a neutral adjective. It goes same way for both male and female.

Sintética:when you add a suffix:

Casa = Casinha, casebre, casarA?o
Rio = riacho, riozA?o
MA?e = mA?ezinha, mA?ezona

Here, you'll find some of the termination for the sintética:

Diminutivo: -inho, -zinho, -ebre, -im, -acho, -ejo, -eta, -ote...
Aumentativo:
-ona, -ázio, -aA§a, -az, -arra¦

*The variation of the degree can introduce a special effect to the context. Diminutivo can sometimes express tender, affection, and other. Aumentativo can sometimes express brutality, despise, and others.

Quantity:

this is when we make plural forms out of any noun. Remember, in Portuguese, adjectives follow the nouns, so if the noun is in the plural so will be the adjective.
To form the plural form, usually an “s is added. But, of course, there are some exceptions.
Nouns ending in:
-A?on: -Aµes, -A?es or “A?os.
Examples: questA?o “ questAµes, caiptA?o “ capitA?es, mA?o “ mA?os.

-r, -z: add “es
examples: bar “ bares, raiz “ raízes

-s: add “es, when there is only one syllable oxítona (the stress is in the last syllable). When it is not oxítona, it doesn't change.
Examples: país “ países, pis “ pis

-l: replace it for “is
example: anel “ anéis, álcool “ álcoois

-m: change it for “ns
example: atum “ atuns, album “ albums

-x: it doesn't change
example: Xerox, latex

When you have the suffixes for the diminutive “zito, -zinho, the plural form adds an “s.
Example:

balA?ozinho “ balA?ozinhos

 

 






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