spanish adverbs

Lesson 16: Spanish Adverbs

 

LOS ADVERBIOS (The Adverbs)


Spanish adverbs are an invariable word, i.e. it does not distinguish between male or female, and plural or singular. We use them to define or describe the verbs, adjectives and other Spanish adverbs in the phrase. There are simple forms such as “hoy” (today), “manana” (tomorrow); compound forms like “anteayer” (the day before yesterday); and complex forms such as “de vez en cuando” (from time to time).

Also remember that there can be adverbial phrases to express the different kinds of adverbs. For instance: adverbial phrases of time: la semana proxima (next week), adverbial phrases of place: en la plaza (in the park), and so on.

    • If the adverb describes the adjective, it is usually placed before it.

Example

 

Estan sumamente enamorados.

They are extremely in love.

 

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In this example, "sumamente" (extremely) describes the adjective "felices" (happy).

 

    • An adverb describing a verb:

 

 

Example

 

Ella nada rapido.

She swims fase

 

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In this example, "rapido" (fast) describes the way she swims.

    • Sometimes, the adverb can modify a whole phrase.

Example

<![if !vml]><![endif]>  El coro comenzo a cantar cuando la novia entro a la iglesia

The choir began to sing when the bride walked into the church.

 

In this example, "cuando" (when) introduces the phrase “cuando la novia entro a la iglesia” (the bride walked into the church)

 

 

    • By adding "-mente" to an adjective, we can form many Spanish adverbs. They are the equivalent to the English adverbs ending in “-ly”

Example

 

rapido - rapidamente (quick - quickly)

 

Escribe rapidamente.<![if !vml]><![endif]>

He writes very quickly

  

    • Compound Spanish adverbs are formed by two or more words that function as one.

 

Example: 

<![if !vml]><![endif]>   A lo mejor no le gusta la pelicula

                            
Maybe he does not like the film

    • There are some expressions formed by the prepositions "con" (with) + noun that are also considered adverbs.

 

Example

 

Hice la torta con alegria.                        <![if !vml]><![endif]>

I made the cake with happiness

Hice la torta alegremente

I made the cake happily

 

In this example, we used the noun "alegria" (happiness) from which we can get the adverb “alegremente” (happily)

 

    • Sometimes, two adverbs together modify a noun, an adjective, another adverb or a phrase. In this case, differently from the English language, they will be joined by “y” (and) and only the last adverb will end in “-ly”.

 

Example

 

Hablo clara y vivamente en la conferencia

He spoke clearly and vivaciously in the conference.

 

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    • There are seven main types of Spanish adverbs:

 

Adverbs of Place:

 

They tell us where the action took place. In order to identify them, we can make a question using the question word: "donde" (where).

 

Example:

 

Se encontraron
aqui.

They met here.   <![if !vml]><![endif]>

 

Where did they meet?

Here

This is the adverb of the phrase. It tells us where the action took place.

 

Some other Spanish adverbs of place are: cerca, lejos, aqui, alli, arriba, abajo, fuera, alrededor, alla, ahi

 

Adverbs of Time:

 

They tell us when the action took place. To identify them, we can ask “cuando” (when).

 

Example:

 

Viajaron a Espana ayer.

They left to Spain yesterday.

 

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Other Spanish adverbs of time are: Luego, ahora, antes, despues, ayer, hoy, manana, entonces, tarde.

 

Adverbs of Manner:

 

They tell us how the action took place. In order to identify them, we can make a question using the question word: “como” (how).

 

Example:

 

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Bailaron
felizmente
toda la noche.

They danced happily all night long.

 

Other Spanish adverbs of manner: bien, mal, asi, despacio, deprisa, aprisa, gratis and tose ending in “-mente”

 

Adverbs of Quantity:

 

These adverbs will modify other adverbs or adjectives. In order to identify them, we can make a question using the question word: “cuanto” (how much?). These adverbs can intensify or decrease the meaning of the adverb or adjective they are modifying.

 

Example:

 

<![if !vml]><![endif]>   Estaba nerviosa y canto muy mal.

                                    She was nervous and she sang very badly.

Other Spanish adverbs of quantity: mas, menos, poco, bastante, demasiado, muy, mucho, apenas, casi, medio, algo, nada, todo.

 

Adverbs of Affirmation:

 

These adverbs are used to give a positive answer to a question.

 

Example:

 

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Ciertamente ganara el primer premio

He will certainly win the first prize.

 

Other Spanish adverbs of affirmation: Si, tambien, ciertamente, claro, desde luego, en efecto, asimismo

 

Adverbs of Negation:

 

These adverbs are used to give a negative answer to a question.

They are used to deny the actionof the phrase.

 

Example:

 

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Ella nunca me dijo que iba a viajar.

She never told me she was going to travel

 

Other adverbs of negation: no, jamas, tampoco, nunca

 

 

Adverbs of Doubt:

 

They indicate doubt or hesitation on the action of the phrase

 

Example:

Quizas estudie medicina.     <![if !vml]><![endif]> Maybe I will study Medicine.

 

Other adverbs of doubt: quizas, tal vez, a lo mejor, acaso, probablemente

 

    • Adverbs, the same as adjectives, can be used in comparisons. They normally follow the same rules. A few of them are irregular when making the comparisons.
ADVERB COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Mal (badly)Bien (well)Mucho (much)Poco (a little) Peor (worse)Mejor (better)Mas (more)Menos (less) El peor (the worst)El mejor (the best)El mas (the most)El menos (the least)

 

Examples:

 

Es el mejor estudiante de Matematicas.

He is the best student in Maths.

 

Este libro es
menos
interesante que el anterior que lei.

This book is less interesting than the last I read.

 

<![if !vml]><![endif]>Ella duerme mucho

She sleeps very much

 

Exercises

 

1) Find the adverb and say to what category they belong:

a)

Caminaban

sigilosamente

en la casa cuando, de repente, entro la policia y los atrapo
con destreza.

(sigilosamente, de repente, con destreza: adverbs of manner) They were walking stealthily in the house when, suddenly, the police broke into the house and caught them skillfully.

b)
Corrieron la carrera
a la tarde.
(a la tarde: adverb of time) They run the race in the afternoon.

c)
Ella los extrano
mucho cuando se fueron de vacaciones
a Hungria
(mucho: adverb of manner, cuando se fueron de vacaciones: adverbial phrase of place, a Hungria: adverbial phrase of place) She misssed them much when they went on holidays to Hungary.

d)
Lloro
un poco
durante
el espectaculo, pero
mas lloro
despues,
porque
lo recordo cuando comenzo su propia carrera actoral.
(un poco: adverb of quantity; durante: adverb of time; mas: adverb of quantity; despues: adverb of time; porque: adverb of reason) She cried a little during the show, but she cried much more later, because she remembered when she began her own work as an actress).

e)

Probablemente
viaje a Londres
en un mes
porque
desea
mucho practicar su Ingles.(probablemente: adverb of doubt; a Londres: adverbial phrase of place; en un mes: adverbial phrase of time; porque: adverb of reason). He will probably travel to London in a month because he really wants to practice his English)

 

2) Form the corresponding adverbs. Follow the example:

 

1)
 De nuevo ------- nuevamente

2)
 Rapido  ---------- rapidamente

3)
 Con inteligencia ----- inteligentemente

4)
 Ilusionada ----------- ilusionadamente

5)
 Con exito ------------exitosamente

6)
 Con tranquilidad--------tranquilamente

7)
 En silencio -------------silenciosamente

8)
 Con tristeza ----------- tristemente

9)
 Con habilidad ------------ habilmente

10)
 Con cuidado ------------ cuidadosamente

 

3) Complete with the correct alternative

 

a)
Erica escribe la carta
correctamente

(correcta — correctamente)
(Erica writes the letter correctly.)

b)
Yo
nunca (siempre — nunca) viaje en avion.
?Es lindo?  (I never travelled by plane. Is it nice?)

c)
Ella ceno
tranquilamente (manana - tranquilamente) y
luego (antes — luego)
se fue a dormir
(She had dinner quietly and then she went to sleep)

d)
El descansara
poco. (poco-mucho).
Solo tiene tres horas para dormir.

(He will rest a little. He can only sleep three hours)

e)
Rosa cocino
alegremente (alegremente — con exito)  hoy
(manana — hoy)
porque
manana
sera el cumpleanos de su marido
(ayer — manana)
(Rosa cooked happily today because tomorrow is her husband´s birthday.)

 

 

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