Russian Technology & Military
Technology in Russia is a major part of their economy. Since the Cold War, technology has been crucial to the country’s success. Starting with the space program, Russia has supported technological progress. Today, the country plays a leading role in computer design, software, military hardware and other areas of technology. Russia’s government also spends a lot of money on behalf of new technology. Under the Soviet Union, the government worked to make Russia a rival to the United States in the technology field. The current government also wants Russia to lead the world in technology and science. Many of the largest Internet companies have executives who are from Russia. The country’s schools and universities are at the center of this movement. Schools like the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology are creating new forms of technology.
Soviet Space Program
During the Cold War, Soviet Russia led the way in technology and the space program. The country launched the Sputnik satellite and created the modern discovery of outer space. Many of the country’s scientists and engineers were part of this program. Russian astronauts or “cosmonauts” were pioneers in the early years of these events. Yuri Gagarin is the most famous Soviet cosmonaut who orbited the Earth. Russia’s early successes in space forced the United States to build its own space program. During this time, Russia also became a leader in rocket science and aerospace fields. These efforts were also used on behalf of military research. Some of the country’s most famous physicists like Andrei Sakharov were part of this movement.
During the Cold War, Russia made technology a key part of military research. The country’s nuclear weapons program required massive investment in new technology. Support went into modern uses of radar, satellite tracking systems, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) and tank defense. At that time, defense spending was the largest part of the Russian economy. These efforts made Russia competitive against the United States and a global superpower. Many of these programs changed defense programs throughout the world.
Computer Technology and Modern Russia
Today, Russia plays a major role in computer technology and research involving the Internet. Some of the most famous technology companies have Russian executives or founders. Sergey Brin, the cofounder of Google, is from Russia and now has offices in Moscow. The country’s large number of mathematicians and physicists now work in software, computer programming, Internet encryption and telecommunications. Companies like Microsoft, Oracle and IBM are also part of Russia’s leadership in technology. Many Russians have the skills in technology to succeed and help the country. Modern Russia continues to be a force for innovation in the world of technology.
Russian Military History
Russian military history is a period of major changes. These changes include imperial rule, communist revolution and regional conflicts. Ending with the Cold War, these events are extremely important. This period begins with Peter the Great and his battles against nearby countries. World War II is another big event in Russian military history. After Word War II, there were fights with the West over communism. Throughout these periods there have been several armies. These groups include the Imperial Army, the Red Army, and the creation of the Army of the Russian Federation. Each of these organizations deserves review and study.
Peter the Great and the Russian Empire
Peter the Great is a key figure in Russian military history. There were several wars when he ruled Russia. Many of these attacks were against the Tatars and the Ottoman Turks. Peter the Great fought these battles to control Russia’s southern borders. These battles required outside help and cost many lives. In turn, Peter visited several countries for help. These countries were Holland, England and the Holy Roman Empire. These travels strengthened Peter’s use of the Imperial Army. But there were also efforts to overthrow Peter. These actions were unsuccessful and Peter responded to protect himself and his power.
Collapse of Imperial Russia and the Rise of the Soviet Union
During the communist revolution of 1917, Russian military history changed again. Soviet power replaced the Russian royal family. The Red Army was born during this period. Also, there were conflicts with enemies involved in the Russian Civil War and the Polish-Soviet War. The Red Army then had to fight wars of independence with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
World War II
The Red Army fought against Nazi Germany during the important battles of World War II. These conflicts led to the end of the Axis Powers. These battles were extremely deadly. Major battles were fought on the Eastern front and Stalingrad. The end of Nazi Germany saw the rise of the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union then became a global power with nuclear weapons. Soviet Russia eventually became the chief rival to the United States in terms of military power and strength. Russia’s military was the dominant force against NATO in Europe, too. These events were a significant part of history of the 20th century.
At the end of the Cold War, Russia’s military changed once again. During this time, the USSR also collapsed. Today, the Army of the Russian Federation is not as aggressive with the rest of Europe. With the exception of battles with Chechen rebels, the Army of the Russian Federation is mainly focused on internal security and is smaller than the Red Army. Russia is no longer a rival to China or the United States. Still, this moment in Russian military history is worthy of study.