What is Considered Contemporary?
Contemporary history in Brazil is considered to be from 1985 until present day. This is because of the end of the military rule that had controlled the country from 1964 until 1985 and the return of civilian government. In January 1985, the shift towards democracy reached its climax when Tancredo Neves of the PMDB party (the party that had always opposed the military regime) was elected.
He was the first civilian president since 1964. Neves’ election victory over general Figueiredo, (the last of the Presidents picked by the military) was considered the start of a New Republic (Nova República). This term is the opposite of the term República Velha (or Old Republic). Lasting from 1880 until 1930, República Velha was the name of the first period of the Brazilian Republic.
The First Phase of Democracy
President Tancredo Neves could not attend his inauguration in 1985 because he fell ill the night before. His running mate, José Sarney, was inaugurated as vice president and served in Tancredo’s position as acting president until Tancredo died. Tancredo was never able to take the oath of office. Due to the unusual events of this situation, the first phase of the Brazilian New Republic was from the inauguration of José Sarney in 1985 until the inauguration of Fernando Collor in 1990. It can still be considered a transitional period because, while the 1967-1969 constitution still remained in force, the executive still had great powers. The president was also able to legislate with decree-laws.
A New Constitution
In 1986, the government ruled by Sarney fulfilled Tancredo’s promise of passing in Congress a Constitutional Amendment to the Constitution received from the military period. This started elections for a National Constituent Assembly to plan and adopt a new Constitution for Brazil. The Constituent Assembly began deliberations in February 1987 and concluded its work on 5 October 1988.
In 1988, Brazil completed the process of the restoration of democracy by adopting its current Constitution. The new Constitution replaced the dictatorial legislation that was still in place from the when the military was in control.
In 1989, elections for president by direct popular ballot under the new constitution were held. This was the first time this happened since military rule began in 1964. Fernando Collor was inaugurated on 15 March 1990. The last step in the long process of democratization took place with the inauguration of Collor (the first president elected under the 1988 constitution).
Since that time, there have been five presidential terms. This has occurred without any damage to the constitutional order. Collor was impeached on charges of corruption in 1992 and resigned the presidency. Franco, his vice president, succeeded him. The second and third terms corresponded to the Fernando Henrique Cardoso Administration. In the fourth and fifth presidential terms, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva served as President. In 2011, the sixth presidential term following the completion of the transition to democracy started with Dilma Rousseff (who still serves as President of Brazil).
Universities in Portugal
In 1290, the very first university founded in Portugal was in Lisbon by King Dinis, which he called Studium Generale. During the first 247 years of its operation, it moved several times between Lisbon and Coimbra. Eventually, it settled in Coimbra and remained there as The University of Coimbra. The University of Coimbra is one of the oldest universities not only in Portugal, but in the rest of the world, as well. It now boasts one of the largest higher education and research institutions in the world. The university is divided up into eight different faculties. There were times throughout Portuguese history when it was the only University in Portugal at all.
Students wear a colored ribbon that identifies which faculty they are studying in. For example, the faculty of law is represented by a red ribbon. The faculty of medicine is represented by a yellow ribbon. This ancient university has maintained customs among its students for centuries. Among those customs is the Coimbra Fado, the ribbon burning ceremony upon graduation and, of course, graduation ceremonies. These customs are called Praxe. It is one of the things that sets the University of Coimbra apart from any other University in the world. Students are proud to participate in Praxe. Praxe is nearly as much of an attraction to the University of Coimbra as their excellent academic reputation.
Facilities and Research
In 1911, Lisbon became a University City again with the establishment of the current University of Lisbon. The University of Lisbon is a state-run facility featuring several faculties. Law, Medicine, and Sciences are taught there, among others, and research is conducted at Lisbon as well. Instituto de Medicina Molecular of the University of Lisbon is an accomplished research facility in the field of molecular medicine. It is one of the most noted research institutes in all of Portugal.
On January 9, 1976, the University of Azores was established. It is a state-run institution and the only University in the archipelago of Azores. The University has three campuses, in Ponta Delgada (So Miguel), Angra do Heroísmo (Terceira), and Horta (Faial). The main campus, Ponta Delgada, offers a concentration of different disciplines. The other two campuses offer specified training in agrarian sciences and oceanography.
Most Populated University
The University of Porto has the largest number of students in Portugal. It was founded in 1911 and considered one of the top 100 Universities in Europe in 2010. It is most noted for its large volume of research output. The faculties of this school are divided up into groups of three main Poles. Pole 1 is a building located in the center of the city. Pole 2 is located in the Northern area of the city, and Pole 3 is West, not far from Pole 1.
Music in Portugal
The history of Portuguese music began with strong influence from Ancient Rome’s musical tradition. It was also influenced by the European traditions. Classical music in Portugal was strongly defined by composers such as Pedro de Escobar, Duarte Lobo, Carlos Seixas, and many more. During this period, organist music was extremely popular and notable composers include Antonio Carreira and Manuel Rodrigues Coelho. Singers of the time include Luisa Todi, Elisabete Matos and Jose Carlos Xavier. There were several famous pianists as well. Maria Joao Pires and Sequeira Costa are among them. Guilhermina Suggia was a famous cello player of classical music as well. This list includes past and present influences on modern Portuguese classical music.
Portuguese folk music is perhaps best known for Fado. Fado originated in Lisbon as the music of the urban poor. The music style is defined by harsh lyrics and sad feelings by the singer. The singer tells a story about being resigned to poverty and loneliness while remaining dignified. One famous Fado singer in Portugal today is Mariza. This style of music is often sung along with a Portuguese guitar.
Student Fado, performed by students at Coimbra University, has maintained its tradition since Augusto Hilário pioneered it in the 1890s. Fado became an internationally popular genre in 1939. This was largely due to the career of Amalia Rodrigues. She was a singer and a film actress. She made stylistic innovations to the music of Fado. She was possibly the most influential Fadista of all time.
Modern Fado continues the tradition. Famous current fado musicians include Mariza, Misia and Camane. They have introduced the music all over again to the world. Some of the best new male Fado singers are Ricardo Ribeiro and Miguel Capucho.
The music of Portugal has always played a strong role in expressing the people’s feelings about national politics. Political musicians were pursued by police and persecuted. Some were even exiled, such as Zea Afonso, Paulo de Carvalho and others. In the 1950’s, Jose Afonso began performing. He was a roots-based musician and led the Portuguese roots revival.
After the Carnation Revolution, music was used to support Left-Wing parties. Ideas like equality, freedom, and free education were often in lyrics to songs. Famous poets like Jose Barata-Moura wrote many of the songs.
Thriving Tourism in Brazil
The tourism industry in Brazil is continuously growing. It is an important part of the economy for many areas throughout the country. In 2009, Brazil had 4.8 million visitors. It is considered to be the top destination for tourists in South America and the second most popular in Latin America (following Mexico). In 2009, profits from international tourism hit $5.3 billion. The number of visitors and income fell considerably in comparison to the year before. This was because of the 2008-2009 economic crises that occurred.
In 2005, tourism supplied 3.2% of the country’s revenues from exports of goods and services. It also made up for 7% of direct and indirect employment in the Brazilian economy. In the next year, direct employment in the tourism industry climbed to 1.87 million people. Domestic tourism is also an essential part of the thriving industry. In 2005, about 51 million domestic tourists toured throughout the country. Direct profits from Brazilian tourists hit USD 21.8 billion. This means Brazil had 5.6 times more receipts than international tourists in 2005.
Brazil’s Tourism Options
Brazil has many options for domestic and international tourists. Ecotourism, leisure, recreation, adventure, beach, historic, and cultural are among the most common forms of tourism in this country. Because of this, natural areas account for the most of the tourism product. The Amazon Rainforest, beaches, and dunes in the Northeast Region, the Pantanal in the Center-West Region, and the beaches at Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina are some of the most common tourist destinations in Brazil. Cultural and historic tourism in Minas Gerais and business trips to So Paulo city are also very common.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) is a report that rates the features of a country that make it appealing to develop business in the travel and tourism industry. This is instead of rating a country’s attractiveness as a tourist destination. In 2008, TTCI rated Brazil as the 49th place in the world’s ranking. This means they were second among Latin American countries and sixth in the Americas. Brazil’s top advantages are displayed more clearly in the sub-index. This measures human, cultural, and natural resources, where Brazil ranks sixth globally, and third in terms of natural resources. The TTCI also mentions Brazil’s major weaknesses. Among these, information and communications technology infrastructure (ranked 58th), ground transport infrastructure (ranked 95th), and safety and security (ranked 128th) are all noted.
In 2005, the most popular destinations for international tourists (in terms of leisure trips) were Rio de Janeiro, Foz do Iguaçu, So Paulo, Florianópolis, and Salvador. The most popular areas for business trips were So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Porto Alegre. Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza were the most common destinations for domestic tourists in 2006.
European Integration into Portugal
Prior to 1974, when democracy was introduced to Portugal, the country was controlled by a fascist dictatorship, which kept Portugal from being able to join the rest of Europe. Also in 1974, the Carnation Revolution opened many new doors for Portugal. In 1981, Portugal signed an agreement that allowed the country to receive the financial aid it needed to modernize the country enough to assimilate into European culture. In 1986, Portugal joined what would later become the European Union. The main goal of the European Union, at the time, was to promote unity between countries in Europe.
Later in 1995, Portugal began to implement the requirements of being a Schengen state. Almost every country within the European Union is a Schengen state. The few that are not have special agreements made with the ones that are. What this means is that citizens of Portugal, and citizens in any of the rest of the Schengen area, are free to go from one country to another without being stopped at the boarder as long as the countries they are moving between are also Schengen members. This also allows Portugal more tourism and more financial stability.
Benefits for Portugal
All of this has benefited Portugal greatly. This has brought the country more foreign trade and more foreign business. With all of the incoming trade also came cultures and social benefits as well. Portugal is now considered one of the mainstream countries in Europe. Many of Portugal’s less appealing aspects have begun to fade into obscurity since the integration began.Portugal has come so far in 2004 that the Prime Minister of Portugal, José Manuel Duro Barroso, was nominated for President of the European Commission. This is a very powerful and very important position. It shows just how much Portugal has actually grown.
Of course the process was not without turbulence. Integrating into Europe brought the people of Portugal fear and losses due to how quickly Portugal was changing. However, over all this has been a positive experience for Portugal bringing them more financial stability and security.
When Portugal suffered from the economic problems of the rest of the world in 2010 the European Financial Stability Facility was called in to help them. This was possible because of the European integration into Portugal, which began in 1974 when Portugal deposed its fascist dictatorship.
The Educational System in Portugal
In Portugal, education is structured into four categories: pre-primary education, basic education, secondary education and higher education.
Pre-primary education: is optional for children aged three to five years old. Pre-primary education is offered for free in state-run nursery schools. Citizens must pay tuition for any privately run nursery school. These schools are often called kindergartens in Portuguese.
Basic education: in Portugal is compulsory. This means you must go from the age of 6. State-run schools are free. When the state-run schools run out of room they give refunds on the tuition to private schools. This makes sure everyone gets into school. Books are not given or sold to students. Financial help is given to poor families.
Basic education is split into three cycles. It lasts a total of nine years. The first cycle lasts four years. It includes basic studies such as Portuguese language, math, environment study, and physical and artistic education. The second cycle lasts two years. It expands on the studies from the first cycle. Music, religion, foreign language, history, and civic education are now included. The third cycle lasts three years. Geography, physics, and chemistry are now included as well. Students are also able to choose a second artistic class like dance or theater. In the ninth and last year of the third cycle, students receive information and communication technologies. They also get to choose between visual education, music/theatre or dance, and technological education.
Secondary education is a lot like high school in the United States. After the ninth year of basic education the Portuguese education system goes in two different directions: higher education and vocational education. Secondary education ends with students either moving on to higher education or moving onto the work force.
In Portugal, most universities are private. State-run universities accept admissions on a competitive basis. The best grades usually are the ones that get in. Higher education in Portugal is divided into two different systems: University and polytechnic. Polytechnic education started in the 1980’s. This system provides practical training to get you ready for a specific job. There are also more than fifteen polytechnic universities in Portugal.
University education has a longer history. This system is based on theory and is very research-oriented. There are more than fifteen universities in Portugal offering the University system.
Brazil’s Many Religions
Brazil’s population is much more adherent to religion than most Latin American countries. When the Brazilian Constitution was created, in 1889, Brazil did not have an official religion. It, instead, states in their Constitution that all are given the right to absolute freedom of religion. According to the last census (2000), roughly 73.8% of the population declared themselves Roman Catholic. In spite of this dominant religion, there are numerous other religious denominations in Brazil.
Examples of other denominations include Protestant, Pentecostal, Episcopal, Methodist, Lutheran, and Baptist. There are more than a million and a half Spiritists or Kardescists who follow the doctrines of Allan Kardec. There are also followers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a small Jewish population, Muslims, Buddhists, and numerous followers of Candomble and Umbanda.
Recently, there has been a large rise of Neo-Pentecostal churches. This increase has brought down the amount of members in the Roman Catholic Church and the Afro-Brazilian religions. In the most recent census, almost ninety percent of Brazilians declared a religious affiliation.
Brazil currently has the greatest amount of Catholics in the world. Since the start of the 16th century, Roman Catholicism has remained Brazil’s major religion. Jesuit missionaries introduced the religion to the indigenous people of Brazil when they began to inhabit the country. In this era, freedom of religion did not exist. All Portuguese settlers and Brazilians were forced to the Roman Catholic faith and had to pay taxes to the church.
Catholicism in Brazil involves many festivities that come from ancient Portuguese traditions. Common traditions involve pilgrimages to the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida (Nossa Senhora Aparecida), the patron saint of Brazil, and religious festivals like the “Círio de Nazaré” in Belém, and the “Festa do Divino” in many cities of Central Brazil. Regions in Brazil that have had a large number of European immigrants have Catholic traditions that are more similar to those practiced in Europe.
The northeast and southern parts of Brazil currently have the largest number of Roman Catholics. The State of Piauí has the greatest amount of Catholics (90.03%) and the State of Rio de Janeiro has the smallest one (56.19%). Among the state capitals, Teresina has the largest proportion of Catholics in the country (86.09%), followed by Aracaju, Fortaleza, Florianópolis, and Joo Pessoa.
Brazil also has numerous branches of Christianity. These include neo-Pentecostalists, old Pentecostalists, and Traditional Protestants mainly from Minas Gerais to the South. The Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil (part of the Anglican Communion) has roughly 120,000 members. The heart of neo-Pentecostalism is Londrina in Paraná state. Main centers also include the cities of So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte (capital of Minas Gerais). Lutherans are concentrated mostly in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Espírito Santo.
When African slaves were brought into Brazil, they introduced their religious traditions to the country. Many of these practices included summoning the gods with chants or dances. Over time, they began to blend with Catholic and Protestant traditions. This has brought about new religions. These Afro-Brazilian religions were once thought to be Satanic. In spite of this, the government legalized all of the religious practices. This was done to divide state from religion.
The Beginning of Portuguese Colonization
Some of the earliest colonists recorded in Brazil are Joo Ramalho and Diogo Álvares Correia. At this time, the Portuguese wanted to secure its highly profitable Portuguese Empire in Asia. Because of this, they didn’t do much to protect the newly discovered lands in the Americas from foreign intruders. Because of this, many pirates began dealing in pau brasil (a Brazilian timber tree) with the Amerindians. This situation made Portugal nervous so, in the 1530s, they started to encourage the colonization of Brazil. They did this mainly for defensive reasons. Permanent settlement did not begin until 1532. The towns of Cananéia (1531), So Vicente (1532), Porto Seguro (1534) and Iguape (1538) were established during that period.
In the middle of the 16th century, large amounts of Portuguese colonists were settling mostly along the coastal regions of Brazil. Many cities were also founded at this time. These include including Salvador (1549), So Paulo (1554) and Rio de Janeiro (1565). In spite of the majority of Portuguese that settled willingly, some forced to degredados (convict exile). These criminals were exiled for a wide range of crimes. Some of which included common theft, attempted murder and adultery.
Portuguese Settlers of Jewish Origins
In the 17th century, most of the Portuguese settlers in Brazil moved to the northeastern part of the country. They did this to begin the first sugar plantations. Some of the new settlers were New Christians. New Christians were descendants of Portuguese Jews who had been persuaded to convert to Catholicism and remained in Portugal. Some colonists of Jewish origin were accused of following Judaism and condemned by the Inquisition. This meant they were either expelled from Brazil and arrested or killed in Portugal. Others were able to hide their Jewish origin and lived amongst the Brazilian population.
Between 1579 and 1620, 32% of the owners of cane sugar mills (engenhos) in Pernambuco were of Jewish descent (Brazil relied heavily on sugarcane at this time). The Jewish Portuguese colonists mainly settled in Brazil during the colonial period. The Portuguese typically settled alone, while the Jews were known to bring their entire families to Brazil. It was common for them to mix with Amerindians and Black slaves.
The 16th and 17th Centuries
From 1565 through 1567, a ten year-old French colony called France Antarctique was destroyed by Mem de Sá (a Portuguese colonial official and the third Governor General of Brazil). He then founded the city of Rio de Janeiro on March 1567 with his nephew, Estácio de Sá. Between 1630 and 1654, Holland controlled part of Brazil’s Northeast region. Their capital was in Recife. In 1649, The Portuguese won a large victory against the Netherlands in the Second Battle of Guararapes. In 1654, Holland surrendered and gave back control of Brazilian land to the Portuguese.
The Demographics of the Country of Portugal
Although as of 2011 it has a population of 10,760,305 people, Portugal is actually a very homogenous country. For almost all of its history Portugal has remained a country with one language and only one religion. This has contributed to a strong ethnic community and national unity.
Since the 1990s other ethnicities have begun to filter into Portugal to follow the jobs that popped up there during the construction boom. Ukrainian, Brazilian, and African peoples have settled in the country. Romanians, Moldovans and Chinese have also chosen Portugal as their home. Former citizens of many European countries have begun to filter into Portugal more recently as well. These cultures have added some diversity to Portugal.
Portugal is a secular state. This means that it supports a freedom of religion. Portugal does not rely on religious documents or practices to dictate law. 84.5% of Portugal is Roman Catholic, while only 2.2% is Christian. Portugal is known to also have small communities of Protestants, Mormons, Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Christian Orthodox, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Baha’l, Buddhists and Hebrews. These religions make up the other 13.3%.
Language and Literacy
The main language in Portugal is Portuguese. Portuguese is one of the “Romance languages” that originated in Spain. Because of Portugal’s previous colonial and commercial empire, Portuguese is now spoken in many different parts of the world.
Portugal has a 99% literacy rate. Portugal’s students score similarly to students in the United States. Other countries that score this way are the United Kingdom, Germany, Ireland, and France.
Age & Gender
The people of Portugal live an average of 78.54 years with females living to 82.01 years and males only living until 75.28 years. The average age in Portugal is 40 years. The total percentage of population over the age of 65 is 18%. The total percentage of the population between the ages of 15 and 64 is 65.8%. The population of those 14 years and under is 16.2%
The two largest cities in Portugal are Lisbon, and Porto. The 2001 census reported that Lisbon had a population of 2,641,006 people, while Porto had a population of 1,679,854.
Wages & Unemployment
Portugal has one of the lowest incomes per person in the European Union. The average wage per month in Portugal is $1,487, or 1,039 €. In 2010 Portugal’s unemployment rate was 11%.
Tourism in Portugal
Portugal has much to offer world travelers, from the exciting capital city of Lisbon to the fairytale town of Sintra and to Tomar home of the Knights Templar. Portugal has amazing beaches with beautiful white sand and clear waters, many of which have been awarded the blue flag eco-label. Portugal is rich with history and has a fantastic tradition of food and wine.
Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal. It has been called the city of explorers. Famous explorers such as Ferdinand Magellan and Vasco De Gama were launched from its ports. Lisbon also plays host to a multitude of museums and art collections. The Alfama district is a maze of medieval streets overlooked by an ancient castle.
Sintra was originally named “Cynthia” by Romans who settled in the town and made it a place of worship for the Moon Goddess. The Moors came after the Romans came and built several castles and palaces around the town. The British Lord Byron fell in love with the town saying that it was “perhaps in every respect the most delightful in Europe.” Pena Palace is the most famous building in Sintra containing turrets, ramparts, domes and gargoyles. It has a large ballroom and the “Arab Room.” Outside Pena palace there are large gardens with trees and plants brought back from various Portuguese colonies. The gardens also have black swans in their ornamental ponds.
Tomar is on the Nabo River. So Francisco is a 17th century church in the town that contains a Match Museum with over 43,000 matchbooks from 104 countries. The Castle and Convent of Tomar were granted to the Knights Templar in reward for helping the Portuguese drive out the Moors. The Castle and Convent of Tomar are considered one of Portugal’s greatest architectural accomplishments.
Portugal’s beaches are beautiful and stretch up and down the entire west and south coasts of the country. The beaches in the south, in the Algarve Province, have warm water that is relatively calm. The Algarve Province contains a little over 93 miles in beaches. Portugal’s beaches also offer a multitude of entertainments including the Quicksilver Pro Portugal which is a surfing competition that is part of the World Qualifying Series and has the highest challenge rating of six stars. Portugal also gets to be the first European country in the F1 Power Boat World Championship.
The official Portuguese tourism bureau offers many ways to try the wine and food of the country. They have planned out several “wine routes” which allows tourist to travel the country experiencing the different kinds of food and wine that Portugal has to offer.